Course #2030 - Library & Information Research

Student Guide

Revised November 2011



Research Process

Searching PAC


InterLibrary Loan

Journal Searching


Internet Searching

MLA Citation

Database Info

Annotated Bib.

Off Site Services

Library Homepage

Library and Information


Trevecca Nazarene University

Management & Adult Studies Department



*Committed Professionals *Effective Communication *Supportive Technology *User-Centered Services


Learning Outcomes

To provide the student with an explanation of the research process.

To acquaint the student with electronic resources and the skills necessary to utilize them.

To demonstrate the process for locating research materials.

To provide access to resources in support of the student's Project Thesis-specifically the development of Chapter II Review of the Literature.

Prepared by: Mrs. Priscilla 'Prilla' Speer M.L.S.

Reference, Information Literacy Services and Module Three Instructor


333 Murfreesboro Rd.

Nashville TN 37210-2877




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Trevecca Nazarene University

333 Murfreesboro Road

Nashville, TN 37210-2877



Fall and Spring Semesters

Summer Semester


8:00 A.M. - 12:00 A.M.

 8:00 A.M - 8:00 P.M.


8:00 A.M. - 12:00 A.M.

 8:00 A.M.- 8:00 P.M.


8:00 A.M. - 12:00 A.M

 8:00 A.M.- 8:00 P.M


8:00 A.M. - 12:00 A.M.

 8:00 A.M.- 8:00 P.M


8:00 A.M. -  6:00 P.M.

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10:00 A.M - 5:00 P.M.

10:00 A.M - 5:00 P.M.


2:00 P.M. - 5:00 P.M.

8:00 P.M - 12:00 A.M.



For May Mini-Term, and holiday hours, please call the library

 or check hours from the Waggoner Library Web site.

Main Circulation Desk: 615-248-1214

Reference Desk: 615-248-1570



Dr. Ruth Kinnersley Director of Library Services Ext. 1491

General requests. E-mail:

Mrs. Prilla Speer Reference & Info Literacy Services Ext.1347

Module Three Instructor, Research services.


Dr. Judy Bivens Instructional Resources Librarian Ext.1206


Mrs. Andrea Gales Archivist Ext 1798


Mrs. Annette Harber Serial Services Librarian Ext.1338


Ms. Paula Mate Systems Services Librarian Ext.7732 

Trouble accessing the web site or systems.


Mrs. Beth Purtee Technical Services Librarian Ext. 1455


Ms. Karla Wardlow Interlibrary Loan Services Ext. 1548

E-mail   Interlibrary Loans


MODULE THREE OVERVIEW                                                           


Working adults who are continuing their education, like you, have a difficult time completing exhaustive information research. Yet, the research project that is a major component of the MHR program requires a substantial amount of research.  The Internet and its ease of use has dramatically changed the way libraries operate. Waggoner Library has simplified a part of your research by providing you with access (on and off campus) to full text journal & book databases.  In the Spirit of the Squirrel, you will find value in working hard gathering your sources to create a Ch. II that is worthwhile. Exemplary copies of completed Project Thesis's can be viewed online from the MHR Information Portal web page. Several copies are on reserve at Waggoner Library as well as all off site libraries and locations.  These are to be used as visual examples of PT chapters, they are not templates.  Refer to your PT Handbook and coordinator for clarification.


Module Three is designed to be a practical, hands-on approach to illustrating basic research principles and an introduction of primary online resources that will assist you in your project research.


  • REQUIREMENTS - At the conclusion of Module Three, you will turn in an Annotated Bibliography (due 6 p.m., week 15) that will be compiled from information you have gathered during your research. The guidelines for developing the Annotated Bibliography follow the Project Thesis guidelines with a few additional requirements. See Appendix C for a sample annotated bibliography. The Annotated Bibliography is considered the Summary Paper for Module Three.
  • ATTENDANCE IN MODULE THREE - You are expected to be in attendance from 6 p.m. to 10 p.m. for Week 13 & 14.
  • ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY - The Annotated Bibliography serves as the primary evaluation tool for the Library Module instructor to see the quality and content of the resources you intend to use for Ch. II Review of the Literature.  No grade is assigned for this module. The Library Module instructor is verifying that there is sufficient published information available on your project topic to successfully complete Chapter II. PT format requirements apply to the Annotated Bibliography in regards to number of sources required and the application of MLA 2009 citation style guidelines. The Ann. Bib. helps you pull together quality resources, apply MLA format guidelines and determine quality content that will contribute to a well written Ch. II. This document is emailed to the Library Module instructor for review.


  • REMINDER- If your group has a scheduled meal or snack time, you will want to make an alternative plan during the library module as no food or drink is allowed.




Information Literacy Session meet in designated computer lab


This session will meet in the designated computer lab and will cover accessing Trevecca technology, creating accounts and passwords, accessing online course materials including locating full text articles from Trevecca's online databases and retrieving materials using the library web site.


Be familiar with the Library and Information Research Module


Read Chapter II Literature Review, Project Thesis Handbook.


Bring your Project Thesis Handbooks to class Week 13.

WEEK 13 

Meet in the Library Instruction Room, Waggoner Library, main floor OR at the designated computer lab at your campus site.


The Module Three instructor will meet with you and go over advanced search strategies using available library resources, including the PAC and Interlibrary Loan


You will begin compiling your bibliography by searching the PAC and online databases.


Documenting electronic resources using MLA style.


The first 30 minutes are assigned to your PT. Coordinator (Ch. 2 & 3).


Continue to locate books and journal articles on your topic. Add them to your previously begun bibliography.


Your Project Thesis Coordinator may stay to discuss any difficulties you may be having regarding the focus of your project. Meeting is on an as needed basis.

 WEEK 15

Submit by email Annotated Bibliography


Email as a Word document directly to Prilla Speer,


Whether you need to analyze the cost-effectiveness of computerizing a manufacturing process or locate a recipe for chocolate mousse, the research process will be the same. Likewise, performing a computer search and using an online database like Business Source Complete is the same process. You may not consciously think of each step of the process, but you do them just the same.


 The Idea


The first thing any researcher must do is to Conceptualize The Idea. You will already have selected a topic for your research when you begin this module. That's the hardest part! The second step is to take your topic and Analyze the Key Terms. Your topic, or problem, will generally contain several terms or interrelated subjects. If you can, separate each concept and begin to think of synonyms or related words for each concept.

Sample Topic: the effect of wages on employee morale.




employee morale






job satisfaction






job attitudes


Every online database and online catalog has a standard list of subject terms that are used consistently throughout. They generally are not the same list from source to source, however.


Problem or Solution?

It is important to remember the difference between the PROBLEM and the SOLUTION. Your research will be easier if you approach the problem and look for possible solutions, instead of trying to find documentation to support your proposed solution. The terms highlighted in the examples below are your subject terms.

Solution       My Company wants to install an expensive theft detection system.

Problem       How can a small manufacturing firm eliminate inventory loss due to theft?


Solution       I want to get the hospital to raise salaries of nurses.

Problem      Staff turnover is high in my department. What can be done to reduce it?




Academic Honesty is expected of all students at TNU. Plagiarism, using another's statements or thoughts without giving credit, submitting for credit a borrowed or purchased paper, falsifying documentation, these types of infractions can result in course failure and/or program termination. Refer to Student Handbook for more information.


The OPAC is your guide to print books, eBooks, periodical and media resources in the library. It is accessed from the library's Web site.


Search On the Library homepage enter the topic you want searched in the Search Library box. After typing in your word or phrase you need to select the tag for your topic; subject, author, title, keyword or journal title.  Simply click on the tag you want to search and then the 'Search' button.


Keyword VS Subject Searching Keywords are searched by simply matching the spelling of the word/phrase-NO meaning is attached.  Searching by subject (or author and title) will attach a meaning to the spelling creating a better result list.  If you cannot find any titles after searching by subject, enter your terms in as a keyword search.  This will broaden your search.


Advanced Search provides limiting options such as by location, publication type and will sort the results in date or title order.

Search  Area Libraries   If you need book materials to supplement the TNU collection, click on the Search Area Libraries button on the Library web page.  Athena is a virtual online catalog providing access to several local area libraries including Trevecca, MTSU, Vanderbilt, Nashville Public Library, and TSU. Retrieved titles can be ordered online for no cost. They will be couriered to Trevecca for pickup.  See ILL section for detailed information on requesting books located through Athena. World Cat allows you to search globally but will show local libraries that have the resource you need.


Searching online full text books eBooks Over 85, 000 eBooks are integrated into the library holdings and can be searched through the PAC. There are several download options available.

Journal Searching

      If you are searching by journal title:  From the library homepage, enter the name of the journal in the search box near the top. Change the tag to read 'Journal Title' then enter. If your journal is full text in one of our databases the result will include a link to the database where you can access the full text.  If there were no hits you can complete online an ILL form requesting a journal article reprint. Allow 7 days for receipt of the reprint.


      If you are searching by subject


    Electronic Resources: Choose a general database, browse subject list or by name of database.  Accessing databases off campus access requires you to provide your name and the ID number from your student ID.


Result List The search result list appears in the order a record was entered into the catalog.  The holdings line provides call number as well as indicates whether a book has been checked out by using the phrase 'No copies available.' Also included in the library holdings are eBooks which are indicated by the phrase [electronic resource] in the title line.


Checking out/Renewing library books Books are checked out at the Main Desk with a maximum of fifteen books for at least four weeks. Your TNU I.D. card serves as your library card. Books cannot be checked out from the Web site.


The ILL Process: All transactions for ILL are handled through the Interlibrary Loan Services Librarian, main floor of the library. Requests can be emailed directly to Karla Wardlow or an online form can be completed. 

  • Books:  Books generally have a three week checkout period.  Turnaround time for book requests is about 7 working days. There are no fees for this service however, late fine charges for ILL books are $.50 per day.

  • Journal Article Reprints: If a journal is unavailable at TNU a reprint of it can be ordered for no cost.  Many times an article can be emailed to you as a PDF attachment within 7 days.

Searching Online Full Text/Abstracted Databases

In many cases, the information located from electronic resources/databases is more current and up-to-date than information found in books. Waggoner Library has different types of electronic resources; online full text; and online abstracted.  See Appendix A for full descriptions of our databases.


ProQuest Central


ProQuest has five search methods. The first is Basic, a keyword search. Advanced search allows choices for attaching meaning to your words/phrases. A Topic search allows you to scan subjects. a Browse search allows you to scan featured content, and a Publication searches journal titles.


A result list is displayed identifying retrieval options.  You can view or print a record in one of four ways; Citation (bibliographic format), Abstract (bibliographic plus a short summary), or Full Text (bibliographic plus abstract plus complete text) and Page Image.  Icons indicate format choices.  To select, simply click on the icon and it will display that format.  Articles can be printed, emailed to your personal Internet account, or downloaded to a flash drive or hard drive.


 Gale Cengage Databases or Tennessee Electronic Library


The Tennessee Electronic Library is a collection of Gale databases that provide a significant number of full text articles.  Access is through the library Web site 'Electronic Resources' page. Subject collections include 'Business,' 'Health Reference Center,' and 'Academic OneFile.' Search screen/method is the same for every database.

The result list indicates type of  article [review, research or article] and provides basic citation information. Clicking on the title will display the TOOL box which provides output options such as print, email, download, translations, citation help, and conversion to .mp3 audio file for listening rather than viewing.

  Business Source Complete

BSC is the primary full text database for business related articles.  In addition to the searchable cited references provided for more than 1,300 journals, Business Source Complete contains detailed author profiles for the 40,000 most-cited authors in the database. Journal ranking studies reveal that Business Source Complete is the overwhelmingly superior database for full text journals in all disciplines of business, including marketing, management, MIS, POM, accounting, finance and economics.

Additional full text content includes financial data, books, monographs, major reference works, book digests, conference proceedings, case studies, investment research reports, industry reports, market research reports, country reports, company profiles, SWOT analyses, Harvard Business School faculty seminars streaming videos, and more. Harvard Business Review is available full text from BSC as well.


To get the best results when you search our databases there are some basic strategies you can employ. Remember you are in control of your research process and its results!

Keyword Vs Subject: The computer cannot differentiate between the same words used in different contexts. This can result in 'unusual' citations. For example, in searching for a hospital manual on hand-washing techniques for floor personnel, using the term Sterilization is not good because references to Birth Control will also be retrieved.

This is why databases have an advanced search option that

will allow attaching a meaning to your search terms/phrases.

In ProQuest it is 'Advanced' search and in Gale it is 'Advanced Search.'   Gale also provides a list of possible subject headings when your search is very broad. These options are provided to allow you to have control over your search and the end result will be a more relevant bibliography.

When you get zero hits on your result list: Check your spelling. Verify that the database you are using is appropriate to your topic. Make sure that you haven't entered too many words into the search box. When several words/phrases are entered your results will reflect how narrow your search was, in this case, generalize more and relate what literature is available in a broader sense to your more specific topic.


Most of you are already subscribers to Internet Service providers such as Comcast or and are already Internet users in some way. The Internet can provide you with access to other libraries, 'chat rooms,' and provide full text services.

  • Search Engines Search engines index the Internet in much the same way as the PAC indexes the library's card catalog. In order to use the search engine effectively, look at the 'Help' section.  Here will be detailed search techniques that will help you create more relevant search results.  Google is a very reliable search engine and probably the most popular

  • Quality Control There is no authority reviewing the information that you locate on the Internet. No one polices the net to make sure information is factual. You need to question every Web site you look at to determine their authority for publishing that information. The library can provide you with some quality URL's that will enable you to begin to access information on the Internet.

  • Alternatives to ILL: Check your local public library, they too can request a title from other library branches. 'Search Area Libraries' from the library's Web site has URL's for several area libraries allowing you to check their catalogs over the Internet.

Documenting Sources Using MLA Style                                          

The Project Thesis requires you use the MLA Documentation Style 7th edition when writing your thesis. Online databases offer a special challenge to documentation. Below you’ll find how to cite journal articles you've located from the library databases such as EBSCO or ProQuest.


Note that the article title is enclosed in quotations. The source or journal name is italicized. Note that the page numbers are just the numbers and not spelled out.


Article paging in some databases is not complete. You may be given a beginning page and an estimate as to how many pages it will take to print your article but you are not given an ending page number. The way this will be cited using MLA style would be the beginning page number followed by a plus sign. The plus sign indicates that the article is continued on following pages. Should look like this: 54+ .


Parenthetical Citation:    Author      (Feuer 45)

Comments:  PQD/Gale and other articles located online/Internet do not have page breaks identified. Sometimes databases do not identify specific page numbers, the MLA 7th ed states that you only use the author, no page number is needed. Accuracy and quality control is important in your research. Waggoner Library has the complete MLA Handbook for referral and there are several Web sites that provide online MLA versions. Citation Guides

Appendix A: Online Database Descriptions

ABI/INFORM this collection of industry and company profiles as well as articles on all aspects of the business field is accessed through ProQuest.

Academic OneFile multidisciplinary collection offered through Gale.

African-American History Online

America History in Video

ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials an online full text database of journals indexed in the ATLA Religion Indexes also including abstracts and citations for religion related topics.  ATLASerials is an ongoing collection of religious journals.

Business Source Complete an online database providing full text business and economic articles.  Harvard Business Review is full text in this database.

Christian Periodical Index an online abstracted index to religious publications not commonly found in the major indexes such a Holiness Today.

Criminal Justice Collection whether studying to become a lawyer or law enforcement officer, paralegal, or for a career in Homeland Security, users have access to journals on criminal justice topics.

Criminal Justice Periodicals a comprehensive collection of U.S. and international criminal justice journals including information for professionals in law enforcement, corrections administration, drug enforcement, rehabilitation, family law, and industrial security

Custom Newspapers Search a collection of more then 650 newspapers, both national and international.
Dissertations & Theses Full Text
This online full text database provides access to all dissertations published in the United States. Many results include a significant summary of the dissertation.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) is a database that covers all aspects of education. From recreation programs for prison inmates to training interns how to work with closed head injured patients to the traditional education topics like classroom management. There are two types of materials indexed in ERIC, ED's (ERIC Documents) which are reproduced full text on microfiche or available online and EJ's (ERIC Journals) which are located by journal title within the library’s periodical collection. ERIC can be searched through ProQuest.

ERIC Plus Text Linking the entire ERIC database with full-text and/or full-image articles only from nearly 260 leading journals, ERIC PlusText, part of part of ProQuest. It is a primary source for any educationally related topic.

First Research-Hoovers industry specific information.

Gale Databases/TEL Gale's Tennessee Electronic Library provides access to a collection of Gale databases. Many of the articles are available full text online. It is accessible from the library’s Web site 'Electronic Resources' link. The password 'elvis' is needed when accessed off campus. The collection includes the following databases:

  • Educators Reference Complete

  • Professional Collection  Aspects of education.

  • Business & Company ASAP  All aspects of business and management topics. Includes directory listings for over 150,000 companies as well as information on Finance, Trade, New Technologies, Trends and more.

  • Computer Database Computer applications & products.

  • Religion and Philosophy

  • Military and Intelligence  includes some basic reference materials that are updated annually: The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia and The World Almanac and Book of Facts.  Additionally included are more than 500 titles and more than 10 million articles.

  • Health Reference Center Academic Fitness, Pregnancy, Medicine, Nutrition, Diseases, Public Health, Occupational Health & Safety. The material contained in this database is for informational purposes only.

Global Issues in Context articles & research from global perspective on multidisciplinary topics.

GreenFILE through EBSCO this database offers a unique perspective on the positive and negative ways humans affect the environment. Drawing on the connection between the environment and disciplines such as agriculture, education, law, health and technology, GreenFILE serves as an informative resource for anyone concerned about the issues facing our planet.

Hoover's Academic delivers comprehensive company, industry, and market intelligence that drives business growth. The database of 12 million companies, with in-depth coverage of 40,000 of the world's top business enterprises, provides marketing and research data necessary in creating effective marketing plans for all types of companies and products.

Lexis-Nexis provides full-text documents from more than 5,600 international news, business, legal, medical and reference publications.

Library Literature & Information Science This full text online database, part of WilsonWeb, covers all aspect of librarianship and information science.
D & B's Million Dollar Database
provides comprehensive marketing information on both public and private companies and their executives. The database is available in a variety of state, regional, national, and international product options.

Nursing and Allied Health Collection All aspects of the Nursing profession, from direct patient care to health care administration, are covered in this collection from Gale.

Points of View Reference Center designed to provide students and schools with a series of controversial essays that present multiple sides of a current issue.

PsycARTICLES Full text articles from about 50 selected APA published psychology journals.

Psychology & Behavioral Sciences Collection covers information concerning topics in emotional and behavioral characteristics, psychiatry & psychology, mental processes, anthropology, and observational & experimental methods.

PsycINFO An abstracted online database that is the authoritative source in the field of psychology.  It is the electronic version of Psychological Abstracts. PsycINFO indexes professional journal articles as well as dissertations in the field of psychology.  Dissertations have to be ordered using Interlibrary Loan.

Social Science Full Text A full text online database, part of WilsonWeb, covering all aspects of the social sciences; social welfare, social work, psychology from 1995-present.

WorldCat contains more than 35 million records describing items owned by U.S. libraries and libraries around the world.


Important Disclaimer! Online databases may change their format, search strategies and topics indexed at any given time. Consequently, Waggoner library may even drop a database if cost to maintain it becomes too prohibitive. When you come into the library for Module Three you will receive the most up to date information regarding databases. If you need assistance prior to Module Three please email me, or

Appendix B: TNU Waggoner Library Services for Off-Site MHR students

  1. If it's journal articles you're looking for, select the 'Journal Title' tag from the Search Library box on the Library's web page.  If your title is not in our catalog,  send us an e-mail with the author, title of the article, title of the journal, date, and page numbers, as well as your name, telephone number, and mailing address. We will order a reprint of the article that will be sent to you as a PDF document.
  2. We will check the books out in your name, and send them to you. For articles, we will make photocopies of articles not available electronically and send them to you as PDF attachments.  Books can be returned to the Trevecca representative at your location, and then returned back to Waggoner Library. Reprints are yours to keep.
  3. If you need books or journal articles that Trevecca's Library doesn’t own, we can request them from another library through Interlibrary Loan. You will need to allow extra time for these materials to come to you – at least two weeks, and maybe longer.


Materials Supplied to MHR Off Site Center Students

The information below is sent to the student along with requested materials from Waggoner Library at Trevecca Nazarene University.


We at TNU's Waggoner Library are happy to be able to provide these materials for you. In this package you will find:

  • Photocopies which are yours to keep. They do not need to be returned.

  • Books from Waggoner Library, which need to be returned by the due date.

  • You may return the books to TNU’s Coordinator at your site.

  • If you need to keep the materials longer, you may renew them over the Web:


1.  Click on the 'My Account' link on the menu bar, left side of the library homepage.

2.  Enter your name and library card number (bar code number).

3.  Click in the box beside each book you would like to renew.

4.  Click on the 'Renew items' button at the bottom of the screen.

Your items will be renewed.  Please make note of the new due date.

Note:  Overdue items, recalled items, and items on hold cannot be renewed online.  Please call Waggoner Library Circulation at the number below for assistance. If you have any questions, call (615) 248-1212 for assistance, or e-mail us.

Appendix C: Annotated Bibliography, Based on 7th edition MLA 2009 

 Blanchard, Ken, Dana Robinson, and Jim Robinson. Zap the Gaps. New York: Harper Collins, 2002. Print.

            This book will help to raise performance by helping to identify chronic problems.

  Coca Cola Bottling Company. "Route Sales Person Position Description." Coca-Cola Policy Manual. Nashville, TN: Coca-Cola Bottling Company, 2001. Print.

            A position description is given outlining the responsibility of a route sales person for the Nashville, Tennessee Coca-Cola Bottling Company.

 Frumkin, Paul. "Fast Casual Faces Down Slowing Sales, Lagging Traffic." Nation's Restaurant News 43.13 (2009): 46+. Print.

            People are coming into the work force with little or no knowledge.

 Griffing, Marjorie. "Training Time: To pay or not to pay." Payroll Manager’s Report 9.8 (2009): 9-14. Business Source Complete. Web. 28 July 2009.

Cites the four criteria that should be met to exclude training activities from working hours, discusses the two Fair Labor Standards Act.

 "The Incentives Matrix." Texas Law Review 88.6 (2008): 1151-1211. Business Source Complete.

Web. 15 June 2010.


Incentives social enforcement provides vary significantly.

 "It's a Small World." Training 46.3 (2009): 46-49. ProQuest. Web. 17 July 2009.

Training professionals face the same issues globally.

 Ledbetter, Harvey S. Personal interview. 18 June 2010.

 Elements of a firm's organizational structure can affect the ethical behavior of workers.

 "The Rewards of Recognition: Six Strategies for Successful Employee Programs." Community Banker 19.1 (2009): n. pag. Print.

             Interesting ideas for rewarding employees.

United States. Government Accountability Office. Highlights of a GAO Forum: Engaging and Retaining Older Workers. Feb 2007. Web. 30 June 2007.

          Provides statistical information about retirement eligible individuals and offers ideas to motivate older people to continue working.

  Appendix D: Overdue Collection Policy

            MHR students are considered by Waggoner Library to be full Trevecca students. This allows you all the privileges and responsibilities of our traditional student body. Books will be loaned out for a 28 day loan period. If they are not returned on time, fines will be levied.

Waggoner Library Contact Information


Reference Desk - 615.248.1570

Circulation Desk - 615.248.1214

IRC Desk - 615.248.1205

E-mail questions

LiveChat with a librarian

Library Homepage


*Committed Professionals    *Effective Communication    *Supportive Technology    *User-Centered Services